|World:||least concern (IUCN Red List)|
|Australia:||vulnerable (EPBC Act 1999)|
|Victoria:||vulnerable (DELWP 2009)|
|FFG:||listed (Action Statement No.247)|
The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is one of six species in the family Balaenopteridae, also known as baleen whales or rorquals. This group of whales all have a pleated throat and ventral groves that expand to allow large volumes of water and plankton to be taken and filtered through ‘baleen’ when feeding.
Humpbacks are black or dark brown above and mainly white underneath including the throat grooves. The Humpback Whale is readily distinguishable from all other whales by its flippers which are almost one third of the body length; they are described in the genus Megaptera, from the Greek megas – great and pteron – wing. Other distinctive features include, tubercules (enlarged sensory hair follicles) on upper and lower jaw, and protuberances on the pectoral flippers. Average length, male 13m, and female 13.9m weighing up to 45 tonnes.
Humpback Whales have a worldwide distribution with discrete populations in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere separated by the equatorial region. The Southern Hemisphere population comprises seven discrete sub-populations or stocks. There are two populations that migrate from Antarctica to Australia, one population migrates along the east coast of Australia and the other migrates along the coast of Western Australia. Some Humpback Whales enter Victorian waters on their migratory path and occasionally enter Port Phillip Bay and Western Port Bay.
All known records of Humpback Whale in Victoria. Source: Victoria Biodiversity Atlas, DELWP, June 2015.
The highest number passing through Victorian waters on their northern migration occurs in June-July.
Some whales on the southern migration pass through Victorian waters in Sept-Oct.
Humpback Whale stocks in the Southern Hemisphere have been subject to commercial whaling since the mid 1800s. Commencement of pelagic fishing in Antarctic waters in 1912 significantly expanded harvest potential and more than 200,000 were taken in the 20th century, including thousands of illegal catches taken up to 1973, this being well after the 1963 International Whaling Commission ban on the taking Humpbacks which now provides protection.1
Habitat & ecology
Humpback Whale habitat varies according to seasonal influences on feeding, migrating and breeding behaviour. The main feeding habitat is in Antarctic waters (south of the Antarctic convergence 550-600S) where Krill (Euphausia superba) form extensive surface swarms during the summer months. Migratory habitat includes both open ocean and continental waters where Humpbacks often travel in close proximity to the coastline.
Mating and calving during winter is carried out in tropical and sub-tropical waters protected by offshore reefs and islands, eg. Great Barrier Reef waters north of Hervey Bay whilst resting areas often include large embayments. Humpback Whales live at least 48 years; natural predators include sharks and Killer Whales mainly preying on calves.
The mating and calving season ranges from June to October. Females give birth to one calf every 2-3 years with gestation 11 to 11.5 months. Calves are 4 to 4.6 metres at birth and weaned at up to 11 months of age, length at independence is 8 to 10 metres.2 Interbreeding (gene flow) between populations is low and limited to only a few females per generation.3 Migration north from Antarctica occurs from late April to early May.
Humpback Whale and calf video adapted from material courtesy Rob Torelli for SWIFFT taken in waters off Tonga.
Females with weaning yearlings are first to leave Antarctic waters whilst females in late pregnancy are last to leave with the highest number passing through Victorian waters in June-July. Migration south from calving areas occurs from mid August through to mid October. Females in early pregnancy head south first, followed by immature whales then mature males/resting females and last lactating females with suckling calves.4
Some whales on the southern migration pass through Victorian waters in Sept-Oct. Humpback Whales are mainly solitary or mother and calf associations, although during migration they often swim together or in small groups which may be segregated into age, sex and reproductive class. Kin selection is not found amongst migrating groups apart from mother and calves.5 Male humpbacks sing complex songs that are thought to be associated with communication within a population and mating selection. Songs vary between populations, and change progressively within and between seasons with the integrity of songs being maintained over long distances (1500 km) on migratory paths.6
Threats to Humpback Whales in Bass Strait include entanglement in commercial fishing gear, marine noise, intense levels of whale watching, Oil Spills, ingestion of marine debris and collision with large vessels. Potential threats to the wider population include resumption of commercial whaling and expansion of the krill fishery in Antarctic waters. Climate change could impact on the availability of food (krill) in the Antarctic region through a reduced area of sea ice, changes in sea temperature and reduced upwelling of nutrient rich currents.
A female Humpback Whale became entangled in crayfish pot float line on 1 July 2005 off Port Fairy. With assistance from a commercial fisher officers from DELWP and Fisheries assisted in freeing the whale.
|Minimum distances for approaching whales, dolphins and seals in Victoria|
|Swimmer or Surfer||Recreational Vessel||Jet Ski||Aircraft|
|Dolphin||30 m||100 m||300 m||#500 m|
|Whale||50 m||200 m||300 m||#500 m|
|Seal on land 30 m|
#Licensed marine mammal tour operators can approach within 300 m with aircraft.
Special protections zones exist at several sites along the Victorian coastline which have more stringent minimum distances regulated under the WILDLIFE (MARINE MAMMALS) REGULATIONS 2009
- 1Paterson, R.A. (2001) Exploitation of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the South West Pacific and adjacent Antarctic waters during the 19th and 20th Centuries, Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 47(2): 421-429. Brisbane.
- 2Clapham, P.J., Wetmore, S.E., Smith, T.D., Mead, J.G., (1999) Length at birth and at independence in humpback whales, J. Cetacean Res. Manag., Vol. 1 No.2 pp141-146, 1999.
- 3Baker, C.S., Florez-Gonzalez, L., Abernethy, B., Rosenbaum, C.H., Slade, R.W., Capella, J., Bannister, J.L., (1998), Mitochondrial DNA variation and maternal gene flow among humpback whales of the Southern Hemisphere, Marine Mammal Science, 14(4): 721-737 (October 1998)
- 4Dawbin, W.H., (1966) The Seasonal Migratory Cycle of Humpback Whales, In Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises, Ed. Norris, K., University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles 1966.
- 5Valsecchi, E., Hale, P., Corkeron, P., Amoss, W., (2002), Social structure in migrating humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), Molecular Ecology (2002) 11, 507-518, Blackwell Science Ltd.
- 6Cato, D.H. (1991) Songs of humpback whales: the Australian perspective, Memoirs of the Queensland Museum Vol 47(2):277-290.
- Humpback Whale Recovery Plan 2005-2010
- Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans
- National Guidelines for Cetacean Observation & Areas of Special Interest for Cetacean Observation
- Sonar and seismic impacts
- International Fund for Animal Welfare defending whales
- International Whaling Commission
- Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora & Fauna
- Convention of Migratory Species
- Whale sightings along the Great Ocean Road
- Department of the Environment -Species profile & threats database
- 30 July - Logans Beach 1 x Humpback Whale heading east.
- On 4 August two Humpback Whales were sighted at Barwon Heads and another two at Port Phillip Heads. On 13 August 1 pod of Humpback Whales were seen in Port Phillip Bay. On 17 August 2-3 Humpback Whales were seen at Portland.
A confirmed Humpback sighting was recorded at Cape Nelson on 4 July. There have been unconfirmed sightings of Humpback Whales reported off Bridgewater Bay, Cape Otway and Lorne during June-July.
The first confirmed Humpback Whale sighting was on 28 May at Westernport Bay with 2 Humpbacks observed. On the 1 June 2013 a Humpback was observed at Port Fairy. On 9 June 3-5 Humpbacks were observed at Portland. Humpbacks were also recorded at Portsea, Cape Liptrap, Walkerville, Barwon Heads, Cape Conran and in Port Phillip Bay. A cow and calf pair was observed off Cape Liptrap on 18 June 2013.
The first validated Humpback Whale sighting was in Portland Bay on 27 May. During May and June sightings of one or two Humpbacks were recorded off Port Fairy lighthouse, Portland Bay and Port Phillip Bay. On 18 June four Humpbacks were sighted off Logans Beach, Warnambool.
The first Humpback Whale sighting was on 27 May at Portland. Detailed sightings collected by Mandy Watson, DELWP, Warrnambool.
- 27 May Portland 1 x Humpback Whale (HBW)
- 7 June Port Fairy 2 x HBW
- 9 June Portland 2 x HBW
- 13 June Logans Beach 3 x HBW
- 18 June Logans Beach 4 - 5 HBW
- 2 Jul Geelong 1 x HBW
- 3 Jul Portsea back beach 2 x HBW
- 6 Jul Portsea back beach 1 + HBW
- 7 Jul Peterborough 3 x HBW
- 8 Jul Princetown 6 + HBW
- 20 Jul Sorrento back beach 2 x HBW
- 21 Jul Sorrento back beach 1 x HBW
- 24 Jul Port Fairy 2 x HBW
- 7 Aug Warrnambool 1 x HBW
- 15 Jun Cape Patton 2 x HBW
- 12 Aug 2 x HBW Logans Beach
- 28 May Rye back beach 1 x HBW
- 11 June Logans Beach 6 x HBW
- 11 June Portland 5 x HBW
- 11 June Lorne 2 x HBW
- 12 June Logans Beach 12 x HBW
- 13 June Logans Beach 2 x HBW
- 14 June Logans Beach 2 x HBW
- 15 June Point Hicks, East Gippsland 13 x HBW
- 16 June Port Phillip Bay 2 x HBW
- 16 June Bridgewater, The Blowholes 6 x HBW
- 17 June London Bridge, Portsea 1 x HBW
- 20 June Logans Beach 2 x HBW