Victorian Banksias Conservation

1. Purpose of team-page

  • The purpose of this team-page is to gather information about the life cycles and management of Banksias in Victoria, to help improve their conservation.
  • Many people do work that gives them insights into Banksia ecology, but it’s often difficult to share this knowledge.
  • We hope this webpage helps build connections between people who want to collaborate on Banksia conservation.

Threats and decline

Banksia species in Victoria with widespread distributions appear to be experiencing declines. Some research studies and field observations have documented fragmentation and loss of populations, dieback, reduced reproductive capacity and recruitment. A number of interacting processes may be threatening Banksia persistence: fire regimes; climate warming; pollination constraints; genetic inbreeding; granivores; browsing. The extensive 2019/2020 bushfires coupled with drought stress have further impacted Banksias.  

2. Victorian Banksias workshop - 15th May 2020

A recent online workshop, organised by Arthur Rylah Institute (Dept Environment Land Water and Planning), Ecology Environment and Evolution (La Trobe University) and SWIFFT, brought together 30 people with expertise in Banksia research and management. Representatives from Victorian and interstate universities, Victorian government agencies, and volunteer land management groups shared their knowledge.  

The story that emerged from the workshop is that Victorian Banksia species are facing declines in numbers and/or health. Various interacting processes (fire, climate, fragmentation) are impacting different life stages of Banksia plants (seeds, seedlings, death). We identified and documented directions for research and management to tackle these problems.  

Adaptive management projects will be essential in moving forward – to monitor the responses of species and adjusting our actions accordingly. Collaboration between universities, government agencies and citizen scientists will be key to this. Two examples of successful research and management collaborations are: the restoration of Silver Banksia to connect isolated populations and provide reliable seed sources; and fire planning for Hairpin Banksia to ensure adequate fire intervals for seed set and seedling growth.  

See sections below for details of current projects for six Banksia species.

For more information about the outcomes of this workshop, contact Annette Muir:


banksia fire  banksia planting

Photo 1. Planned burning trials with Hairpin Banksia  (image: Annette Muir, DELWP)

Photo 2. Restoration of fragmented populations of Silver Banksia (image: Cathy Olive, Euroa Arboretum)

3. Description and habitats

Information source: VICFLORA (Flora of Victoria), Royal Botanic Gardens 


Banksia canei

Threat status Victoria: rare (r)

B Canei flower Banksai canei cone

Photo 1. Banksia canei flower. (image: Casliber, via Wikimedia Creative Commons)

Photo 2. Banksia canei cone. (image: Lucas Bluff, DELWP)


  • Height to c. 3 m; lignotuber absent; follicles opening only after fire; flowers Nov–May.
  • ‘Dry, rocky ridges, in open-forest or subalpine mallee scrubs’.


B canai distribution
Banksia canei distribution. Source: Victorian Biodiversity Atlas


Banksia croajingolensis

Threat status Victoria: endangered (e)


  • Height to 1.2 m; lignotuber present; follicles opening when mature; flowers Jun–Aug.
  • ‘Occurs in a drainage line in coastal heath’.


Banksia croajingolensis distribution map
Banksia croajingolensis distribution Source: Victorian Biodiversity Atlas


Banksia integrifolia subsp. integrifolia

B. integrifolia flowerBanksia integrifolia cone

Photo 1: Banksia integrifolia flower (image: Stefan Gouws, La Trobe University)

Photo 2: Banksia integrifolia cone (image: Casliber, via Wikimedia Creative Commons)


  • Height to c. 25 m; lignotuber present; follicles opening on ripening; flowers Jan–Jun.
  • ‘Near-coastal areas’.


Banksia integrifolia distribution
Banksia integrifolia subsp. integrifolia distributionSource: Victorian Biodiversity Atlas

Banksia marginata

Banksia marginata flower and coneBanksia marginata coneBanksia marginata isolated tree

Photo 1 - Banksia marginata flower (image: Simon Heyes, La Trobe University)
Photo 2 - Banksia marginata cone (image: Simon Heyes, La Trobe University)
Photo 3 - Banksia marginata isolated tree (image: Bill Weatherly, Friends of the Forgotten Woodlands)


  • Height 2 m to c. 12 m; lignotuber present or absent; follicles opening when mature; flowers Feb–Jul.
  • ‘A very variable species in terms of habitat, habit, leaf shape and indumentum’.
  • ‘Wide range of habitats’.


B marginata distribution

Banksia marginata distribution. Source: Victorian Biodiversity Atlas

Banksia ornata

Banksia ornata flowerBanksia ornata cones

Photo 1: Banksia ornata flower (image: Neal Enright, Murdoch University)
Photo 2: Banksia ornata cones (image: Neal Enright, Murdoch University)


  • Height to c. 3 m; lignotuber absent; follicles opening only after fire; flowers May–Sep.
  •  ‘Usually grows in deep sand in heathland or mallee scrub’.


Banksia ornata distribution map

Banksia ornata distribution. Source: Victorian Biodiversity Atlas


Banksia saxicola

Threat status Victoria: rare (r)

Banksia saxicola

Photo 1: Banksia saxicola cone (image: Kirrily Robert, via Wikimedia Creative Commons)


  • Height to c. 13 m; lignotuber absent; follicles opening on ripening or over years; flowers Jan–Mar.
  • ‘Higher peaks and sheltered gullies and slopes, usually in rocky sites’.


Banksia saxicola distribution

Banksia saxicola distribution. Source: Victorian Biodiversity Atlas


Banksia serrata

Banksia serrata flowerBanksia serrata cone

Photo 1: Banksia serrata flower (image: Steve4343, via Wikimedia Creative Commons) 

Photo 2: Banksai serrata cone (image: Kirrily Robert, via Wikimedia Creative Commons)


  • Height to c. 16 m; lignotuber present or absent; follicles opening only after fire; flowers Jan–Jun.
  • ‘Confined to coastal and hinterland areas, often locally common on sandy soils in open-forests’.


Banksia serrata distribution

Banksia serrata distribution. Source: Victorian Biodiversity Atlas


Banksia spinulosa var. cunninghamii

bannksia spinulosa cone Banksia spinulosa flower

Photo 1 - Banksia spinulosa cone (image: Annette Muir, DELWP)

Photo 2 - Banksia spinulosa flower (image: Annette Muir, DELWP)


  • Height to 5 m; lignotuber absent; follicles opening with or without fire; flowers April to July.
  • Foothill and lowland open-forests and heathy woodlands.


Banksia spinulosa distribution map

Banksia spinulosa var. cunninghamii distribution. Source: Victorian Biodiversity Atlas

4. Research and management projects

These are some of the Banksia research and management projects that are happening in Victoria. To add your projects, contact SWIFFT and provide the following details:

Banksia canei

Mountain Banksia seed production and fire intervals in Gippsland


A single-year project monitored seed production on Banksia canei in relation to fire intervals. The species has life history characteristics that make it vulnerable to decline with short fire intervals – it is killed by fire and has no soil seed bank. There is uncertainty about whether current planned burning regimes are compatible with its time to reproductive maturity time and hence population persistence.

Data were collected on cone production (seeds) in 2017-2018 for 170 individual B. canei plants in Gippsland Region. A lack of variability in fire history in the study area resulted in one time-since-fire class for the seed analysis. Plants originating from fire in 2003 (14 years old) had a median value of 11 closed cones per plant. Further monitoring of seed production is needed to determine reproductive thresholds.

About a third of recorded B. canei sites were burnt in the widespread bushfires at the start of 2020. Ground checking is needed to verify the extent of adult plant death and levels of seedling recruitment in the burnt areas, and comparison with unburnt sites.


Mountain Banksia bushfire recovery in north-east Victoria


A small isolated population occurs in Burrowa Pine Mountain National Park. Prior to the 2020 bushfires, this population was affected by drought, and inspections of some areas in 2017 revealed almost all Banksia canei plants were lacking mature seed-bearing cones. Given the limited seed source prior to the 2020 bushfires, which were rated as being high severity in Burrowa Pine Mountain NP, there are concerns for its recovery. A number of bushfire recovery works are planned in 2020 by Regional DELWP and Parks Victoria staff. Sites will be inspected to determine: fire severity per stand; presence of re-sprouting or germination or seed collection potential; and level of exotic or native herbivore browsing.

Banksia integrifolia

Water stress, shrub encroachment and declining Coast Banksia


Banksia integrifolia (coast banksia) decline at Wilson’s Promontory National Park has been well documented since the 1970’s, yet no single cause has been found. B. integrifolia is a foundational species in the grassy woodlands at Wilson’s Promontory, providing hollows for nesting sites and floral resources for native wildlife. The coastal grassy woodlands have been subjected to large scale shrub encroachment by Leptospermum laevigatum (coast tea-tree).

This study investigated the decline of B. integrifolia trees due to shrub encroachment. We hypothesised that B. integrifolia can access groundwater resources, that the presence of a shrub layer limits water availability for B. integrifolia individuals and that water stress in B. integrifolia increases when surrounded by a dense L. laevigatum understorey. In a glasshouse experiment we found that B. integrifolia have a dimorphic rooting system that enables them to access groundwater resources. Our natural experiments found that encroachment limits water availability for B. integrifolia, especially at depth, and that B. integrifolia individuals surrounded by shrubs had a higher degree of water stress compared to unencroached banksias.

These results indicate that water stress of shrub encroached B. integrifolia could lead to lower productivity, and that shrub encroachment and long-term low intensity drought is contributing to the decline of B. integrifolia across Wilson’s Promontory National Park.  

Banksia marginata

Cockatoos and recruitment limitation of Silver Banksia


There is much evidence, both historic and contemporary, that Silver Banksia (Banksia marginata) across the Victorian Volcanic Plains were common and widespread. However, historic land clearing has left many stands in a highly fragmented state. Some of these stands of B. marginata suffer from recruitment and fruit set failure.

In our recent publication in Plant Ecology, we tested the hypothesis that populations of B. marginata are experiencing widespread recruitment bottlenecks, by examining tree size-class distribution and production of infructescences (cones) of 15 populations.  We found no evidence of widespread recruitment bottlenecks or a failure to set seeds; most populations were recruiting, though we did find evidence of declining recruitment with population size, suggesting evidence of an Allee effect. The proportion of trees without cones varied between populations; three populations had large numbers of trees (40%) lacking mature fertile cones. Another hypothesis is that this may, in part, be due to excessive seed predation by Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus funereus). Recent work has investigated removal of B. marginata cones by cockatoos and what this may mean for B. marginata conservation.

Managers should focus on minimising threats to seedling survival and augment populations below 100 individuals to improve recruitment and maintain stand persistence in the landscape.


Genetics, climatic niche and Silver Banksia


Habitat fragmentation imperils the persistence of many functionally important species, with climate change a new threat to local persistence due to climate niche mismatching. Predicting the evolutionary trajectory of species essential to ecosystem function under future climates is challenging but necessary for prioritizing conservation investments.

In a new publication that appeared in the journal Evolutionary Applications, our team used a combination of population genetics and niche suitability models to assess the trajectory of Banksia marginata from south-eastern Australia. We demonstrate significant genetic structuring among, and high level of relatedness within, fragmented remnant populations, highlighting imminent risks of inbreeding. Population simulations, controlling for effective population size, suggest that many remnant populations will suffer rapid declines in genetic diversity due to drift in the absence of intervention. Simulations were used to demonstrate how inbreeding and drift processes might be suppressed by assisted migration and population mixing approaches that enhance the size and connectivity of remnant populations. These analyses were complemented by niche suitability models that predicted substantial reductions of suitable habitat by 2080; ~30% of the current distribution of the species climate niche overlaps with the projected distribution of the species climate niche in the geographic region by the 2080s.

Our study highlights the importance of conserving remnant populations and establishing new populations in areas likely to support B. marginata in the future, and adopting seed sourcing strategies that can help populations overcome the risks of inbreeding and maladaptation. We also argue that ecological replacement of B. marginata using climatically suited plant species might be needed in the future to maintain ecosystem processes where B. marginata cannot persist. We recommend the need for progressive revegetation policies and practices to prevent further deterioration of species such as B. marginata and the ecosystems they support.


Seed orchards for restoration and genetic diversity


Locating and propagating from all Victorian Volcanic Plains (VVP) remnants to build a network of seed orchards and seed production areas (SPAs) and other plantings. Rebuilding genetic diversity and providing reliable seed sources. Establishing SPAs with climate match genetics incorporated. Hopefully rebuilding a little of a keystone ecological component.


Friends of the Forgotten Woodlands (FoFW) is a volunteer group, and includes leading researchers in ecology and genetics, and their advice and contribution informs all our activities. FoFW also enables discussion and facilitation of research work within the group. The immediate focus was location of all remnants and propagation, as considerable decline and loss was occurring, and in parallel building and adding to our knowledge base. FoFW has been supported with several grants, including a 3-year Biodiversity and Community Action Grant, which have greatly increased our effectiveness and scope.


Adam Miller (Deakin University) undertook investigation of levels of genetic diversity of the fragmented remnant populations, and also advised on design of SPAs incorporating climate adaptation. Since then we have encouraged and supported research investigating population structure and status (Simon Heyes, La Trobe University), genetic movement within populations (Adam Miller), and pollination (Graham Jury, La Trobe University).

Since 2014 we have planted orchards of VVP Banksia marginata, and Sheoak and Bursaria. This has been on public and private land at 16 locations – a total of 5880 plants growing, GPS recorded with provenance. We have also distributed 7000 trees to 28 landholders, several locations with GPS records. 

Our group has a wide range and depth of experience, and we work to best practice with best advice. As well as the knowledge and experience that members of FoFW brought to the group, we have added to this collective experience through what we have learned in building the project and implementing it. We have successfully set up large SPAs and learned to manage the logistics. We will always be happy to share information with others working to build their projects.


Seed orchards and climate change


The goal of the project has been to establish large, self-sustaining populations of Banksia marginata, with a broader genetic base, that could be used as seed orchards in the future.

Euroa Arboretum Seed Production Area

The SPA was set up in 2004. Around 350 plants were planted over a number of years, from 9 provenance sources in the Strathbogies and Tooborac areas. In 2015, 80 trees remained, with 6 provenances represented. 

The work of Dr Linda Broadhurst (CSIRO) has shown that the Euroa Arboretum Banksias are genetically more robust than the wild populations, but still show inbreeding depression. Since 2015, plants from Chiltern, Ararat, and Pastoria have been added to enhance genetic robustness.  We are also adding drier climate adapted plants.

A large irrigation system was installed in 2017 to irrigate the site from early summer until April. There have been large losses of Banksia after extreme heat waves over 40 degrees, with at least 40 mature trees dying per year for the past 2 years. This has also happened at the Benalla Seed Production site.

Goulburn Broken CMA Silver Banksia project

This project was started in 2012, with funding from the Victorian Biodiversity Fund for 6 years. The purpose is to build a landscape of Silver Banksia woodlands.

Initially there was a shortage of seed to meet demand. Banksia plants were grown and given to landholders to establish seed production sites. Sites are ideally large scale, with several hundred plants per site. Landholders need to commit to summer watering in the first year. There is an average success rate of 50 –60%.

Over 8 years, 18,000 Silver Banksias have been planted across the GBCMA areas, but survival rates are yet to be measured.


Banksia ornata

Demographic shift in fire-killed serotinous Desert Banksia


The aims of this work were to investigate:

Field data collection was undertaken across the available range of ‘time since fire’ (tsf) sites in the Grampians and Little Desert. Plant size (height, canopy width) and total cone crop per plant were measured for a minimum of 60 plants per fire age area. Follicle counts were made on burned cones to assess if there were changes in follicles per cone over time.

Monthly rainfall, temperature and SPEI (Standardised Precipitation – Evaporation Index) data was obtained for the nearest climate stations. Cumulative rainfall deviation from mean/median was compared for populations of similar tsf age in 2017 vs 1990’s.

There was a marked decrease in total cones per B. ornata plant at both Grampians and Little Desert tsf chronosequence sites in 2017-18 as compared to 1990’s. Declines in cone store per plant correlate with decreased rainfall and increased SPEI.

Populations will be more vulnerable to decline and loss under short interval fire, and in fact will need longer inter-fire intervals to accumulate seed stores sufficient to best guarantee future persistence. Even with longer time to accumulate a sufficient seed bank, the increasingly dry climate will reduce the number of years when post-fire conditions for recruitment are favourable.


Dieback of Desert Banksia in Little and Big Deserts


As part of a plant community fire study in Little and Big Deserts in western Victoria, we are collecting demographic data (height, life-stage, presence of flowers and fruits) for key fire response species including Banksia ornata. Data has not been analysed as yet. During our field season in 2019 we observed a high number of senescing and dead Banksia ornata. Senescence appeared to begin at a single stem and then radiated as it progressed. We visited 96 sites in the Little and Big Deserts and observed dead or senescing Banksia ornata at almost every site. Further investigation is needed into the extent and causes of this dieback.


Banksia serrata

Drought and dieback in Saw Banksia in Gippsland


As temperatures and drought become more extreme, ecological thresholds for survival may be increasingly exceeded. In this study, we observed extensive dieback of Saw Banksia (Banksia serrata) in central and east Gippsland. This likely occurred in 2017/8 following a period of record high temperatures and very low rainfall.  At one large stand, we found substantial mortality (biased towards larger sized plants) and extensive dieback (across all sizes of plants). We hypothesise that water-stress thresholds were exceeded, contributing to a landscape-scale response. If extreme climate trends continue, further declines of B. serrata populations might be envisaged


Banksia spinulosa var cunninghamii

Hairpin Banksia demography and fire management


Research by Arthur Rylah Institute (ARI, DELWP) on the life cycle of Banksia spinulosa var cunninghamii (Hairpin Banksia) is being used by fire managers in DELWP and Parks Victoria to help maintain plant diversity in forests when applying fuel reduction burns.

Hairpin Banksia typifies plants that decline if burnt too often: because they don’t resprout after fire; take a long time before producing seed; and have no soil seed banks. It’s important to determine the minimum time between fires needed for these plant types to produce sufficient seed for recruitment.

Seed production and seedling recruitment in response to fire were studied at two Hairpin Banksia populations; just east of Melbourne, and in far east Gippsland. Results indicate that fire intervals of at least 15 years enable Hairpin Banksia populations to maintain an adequate seed source for renewal. Very low numbers of seedlings were recorded at almost all sites, and it’s unclear as to the relative influences of fire severity, climate change or other factors on germination and survival.

Guidelines to maintain Hairpin Banksia populations have been produced by ARI in collaboration with operational burn planners in DELWP and Parks Victoria. These include: checking cone production prior to burning; varying burn intensity; patchiness within burns; and delaying burns in drought conditions.

However, the huge bushfires across East Gippsland at the start of 2020 have impacted almost all of the Hairpin Banksia populations there. DELWP spatial data indicates that about 30% of the species range in East Gippsland was also burnt in the ten years prior to the bushfires. Seed production in Hairpin Banksia under ten years of age is likely to be insufficient for replacement recruitment. Ground verification in Spring 2020 is needed to confirm the effects of different fire severity, and levels of seedling recruitment.


Hairpin Banksia seed set and pollination constraints


In the greater Melbourne region of Victoria, reproductive success in several small populations of Banksia spinulosa var. cunninghamii is minimal, even though plants are of reproductive age and successfully develop inflorescences. Possible reproductive constraints limiting seed set within one of these small populations (Dandenong Ranges) were assessed during the 2018 flowering period and contrasted against a larger, more fertile population (Gembrook area). Pollen viability, florivory and floral visitation were compared between the two sites.

Pollen viability was high in both sites, although flowers opened later at the Dandenongs site. Florivorous larvae within Banksia inflorescences were found at both sites and may impact reproductive success. The two sites had different proportions of mammals and birds visiting inflorescences; with a greater number of species recorded from the Gembrook site. It remains unclear if differences in pollinating guilds between the two sites is impacting reproductive success.

Future studies would benefit from assessing pollen loads and pollinator effectiveness, whilst also extending the study to observe more populations of B. spinulosa var. cunninghamii. Overall, these results suggest that a variety of factors could be impacting reproductive success in small, reproductively poor populations of B. spinulosa var. cunninghamii.


Banksia croajingolensis

Facilitating the conservation of Banksia croajingolensis


This project brings together researchers from La Trobe University, ecological restoration practitioners from Envite Environment, and local community members through the Friends of Mallacoota in an initiative to secure the future of East Gippsland’s Banksia croajingolensis.  This endangered species is known only from a single drainage line South of Shipwreck Creek in the Croajingolong National Park, a site that was severely burnt in the 2019/2020 megafires. Very little is known about the biology of B. croajingolensis. There is even a question about its origin, with Flora of Victoria suggesting that it may be a hybrid between other species with which it co-occurs. We are undertaking surveys to assess the post-bushfire response of B. croajingolensis and combining this with genomic assessment of diversity and structure of the resprouting or emerging plants.  The genomic uniqueness of the species will also be assessed relative to putative parental taxa (B. marginata and B. integrifolia), along with another taxon that is thought to be closely related (B. paludosa).  The genomic outcomes will lead to practical management recommendations including, for example, ex situ collections. In this space, propagation of seed and cuttings by the Friends of Mallacoota is underway to serve as an insurance population in case of future environmental catastrophes.


Seaford Banksia Arboretum


This community project is aimed at planting out approx. 2 Ha of VicRoads roadside land exclusively with Banksia species. At present the project is expecting to plant some 2000 or so Banksias.

Plants are to be about 2-3M high and in this instance be as floriferous as possible. Species include; B. prionotes, B. praemorsa (three shades), B. serrata of which a local form stay around 3.5M in this location, B. Robur for the swampy areas along with B. occidentalis, B. ‘Giant Candles’, B. ericifolia, B. spinulosa forms, possibly B. marginata and many others.



Journal articles

Ayre, D.J., O'Brien, E., Ottewell, K. and Whelan, R.J. (2010). The accumulation of genetic diversity within a canopy-stored seed bank. Molecular Ecology, 19, 2640-2650.

Bennett, L.T. and Attiwill, P.M. (1997). The Nutritional Status of Healthy and Declining Stands of Banksia integrifolia on the Yanakie Isthmus, Victoria. Australian Journal of Botany 45, 15–30.

Bradstock, R.A. and Bedward, M. (1992). Simulation of the effect of season of fire on post-fire seedling emergence of two Banksia species based on long-term rainfall records. Australian Journal of Botany 40, 75-88.

Bradstock, R.A. (1990). Demography of woody plants in relation to fire: Banksia serrata and Isopogon anemonifolius. Austral Ecology 15, 117–32.

Carthew, S.M. (1994). Foraging behaviour of marsupial pollinators in a population of Banksia spinulosa. OIKOS 69, 133-139.

Collins, L., McCarthy, G., Mellor, A., Newell, G. and Smith, L. (2020) Training data requirements for fire severity mapping using Landsat imagery and random forest. Remote Sensing of Environment 245.

 Enright, N.J., Fontaine, J.B., Bowman, D.M.J.S., Bradstock, R.A. and Williams, R.J. (2015). Interval squeeze: altered fire regimes and demographic responses interact to threaten woody species persistence as climate changes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13, 265-272.

Gill, A.M. and McMahon, A. (1986). A Post-fire Chronosequence of Cone, Follicle and Seed Production in Banksia ornata. Australian Journal of Botany 34, 425-433.

Goldingay, R.L. & Carthew, S.M. (1998) Breeding and mating systems of Australian Proteaceae. Australian Journal of Botany 46, 421-437.

Heyes, S., Sinclair, S., Hoebee, S. and Morgan, J. (2020) How widespread are recruitment bottlenecks in fragmented populations of the savanna tree Banksia marginata (Proteaceae)? Plant Ecology 221, 545-557.

Hughes, M. J. (2019). Determining reproductive constraints in a small population of Banksia spinulosa var. cunninghamii (Proteaceae) in the Dandenong Ranges, Victoria (Unpublished honour's thesis). La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.

Jeanes, J.A. (1996). Proteaceae. In: Walsh, N.G.; Entwisle, T.J. (eds), Flora of Victoria Vol. 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Krauss, S.L., Phillips, R.D., Karron, J.D., Johnson, S.D., Roberts, D.G. and Hopper, S.D. (2017) Novel consequences of bird pollination for plant mating. Trends in Plant Science 22:

Lamont, B.B., Enright, N.J., Witkowski, E.T.F. and Groeneveld, J. (2007). Conservation biology of Banksias: Insights from natural history to simulation modelling. Australian Journal of Botany 55, 280-292.

Miller A.D., Nitschke C., Weeks A.R., Weatherly W.L., Heyes S.D., Sinclair S.J., Holland O.J., Stevenson A., Broadhurst L.M., Hoebee S.E., Sherman C.D.H., Morgan J.W. (2020) Genetic data and climate niche suitability models highlight the vulnerability of a functionally important plant species from south-eastern Australia. Evolutionary Applications 13, 2014-2020. 

Molyneux, W.M. and Forrester, S.G. (2007). Banksia croajingolensis (Proteaceae), a new species from East Gippsland, Victoria. Telopea 11, 419–426.

Muir, A., Vesk, P. and Hepworth, G. (2014) Reproductive trajectories over decadal time-spans after fire for eight obligate-seeder shrub species in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 62, 369–378

Muir, A., Bluff, L., Moloney, P., Amos, N. and Thompson, J. (2020) Hairpin Banksia: a widespread plant threatened with decline by frequent fires. Australasian Plant Conservation 29, 9-11.

McCarthy, M.A., Possingham, H.P. and Gill, A.M. (2001). Using stochastic dynamic programming to determine optimal fire management for Banksia ornata. Journal of Applied Ecology 38,585–592.

Price, J.N. and Morgan, J.W (2003). Mechanisms controlling establishment of the non-bradysporous Banksia integrifolia (Coast Banksia) in an unburnt coastal woodland. Austral Ecology 28, 82-92.

Stimpson, M.L., Weston, P.H., Whalley, R.D.B. and Bruhl, J.J. (2016). A morphometric analysis of the Banksia spinulosa complex (Proteaceae) and its complex taxonomic implications. Australian Systematic Botany 29, 55-86

Vaughton, G. (1990a). Predation by insects limits seed production in Banksia spinulosa var. neoanglica. Australian Journal of Botany 38, 335-340.

Vaughton, G. (1990b). Seasonal variation in honeyeater foraging behaviour, inflorescence abundance and infructescence set in Banksia spinulosa (Proteaceae). Australian Journal of Ecology 15, 109-116.

Salkin, A. and Hallam, N.D. (1978). The Topodemes of Banksia canei J. H. Willis (Proteaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 26, 707-721.

Vaughton, G. and Ramsey, M. (2006). Selfed Seed Set and Inbreeding Depression in Obligate Seeding Populations of Banksia marginata. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 127.

Whelan, R.J. and Ayre, D.J. (2020). Long inter‐fire intervals do not guarantee a large seed bank in a serotinous shrub (Banksia spinulosa Sm.). Journal of Ecology 108, 1690-1702.

Whelan, R.J., Jong, N.H., Burg, S. (1998). Variation in bradyspory and seedling recruitment without fire among populations of Banksia serrata (Proteaceae). Austral Ecology 23, 121–28.

Whelan, R.J. (1995) The Ecology of Fire. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Whitehead, M.R., Lanfear, R, Mitchell, R.J. and Karron, J.D. (2018) Plant mating systems often vary widely among populations. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6:38. 





6. Information sharing

Are you working on any aspect of Banksia ecology or management, and would like to share information? 



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